Jewish Museum in Prague


  In chronological order, the events preceding the persecution of the Jews in Bohemia and Moravia during the World War II are chronicled, and so is the course of the persecution itself.
  The events concerning the six children whose fates the exhibition presents are highlighted in colour.

1918   1918–1933: Weimar Republic – the period of a democratic regime in Germany
1921   Adolf Hitler becomes the chairman of the NSDAP (National-Socialistic German Labour Party)
1925   Adolf Hitler’s book Mein Kampf is published show photodocuments
1928  Petr Ginz  1. 2.: Petr Ginz is born in Prague
  Alice Justitzová  5. 7.: Alice Justitzová is born in Prague
1930  Eva Löwidtová  24. 10.: Eva Löwidtová is born in Děčín
1931  Martin Glas  16. 6.: Martin Glas is born in Prague
1932  Pavel Werner  3. 1.: Pavel Werner is born in Pardubice
1933   30. 1.: Adolf Hitler is appointed the Chancellor of Germany
   20. 3.: The concentration camp in Dachau is established
1934  Růženka Friedová  26. 1.: Růženka Friedová is born in Prague
   30. 6.: The „Nacht der langen Messer“ (Night of the Long Knives) - the commanders of the SA troops (Sturmabteilung) are murdered
1935   15. 9.: The so-called „Nuremberg Laws“ are adopted at the NSDAP convention
ukázka show photodocuments show photodocuments show photodocuments
1936   7. 3.: The German army enters the demilitarized zone of the Rhine
1938   13. 3.: The occupation of Austria - the so-called Anschluß
   29. 9.: Munich Agreement – Great Britain, France, Germany and Italy, without the participation of Czechoslovakia, agree on surrendering Czechoslovak border areas to Germany
   5. 10.: Czechoslovak president Edvard Beneš resigns and goes into exile in London
   9. 11. - 11. 11.: Within the territory of the German Reich (and also in the sequestrated Czechoslovak border area) the pogrom known as the „Kristallnacht“ (Crystal Night) is set off – most synagogues are either burnt down or destroyed, Jewish shops are robbed and many Jews are killed or dragged into concentration camps
   November 38 - September 39: Emigration of selected children from Austria, Germany and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia to England is enabled
   30. 11.: Emil Hácha is appointed the president of the Czechoslovak Republic
   December 1938: Arrival of Nicholas Winton in Prague
   14. 3.: The first children’s transport of 20 children is dispatched from Prague to England
1939   14. 3.: The independent Slovak state is declared
   15. 3.: Occupation of Czech lands by German army
   16. 3.: the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia is declared
   March 1939:
In the Protectorate these anti-Semitic orders are adopted:
 • Jewish defence lawyers are forbidden to practise
 • ban on working in public administration, institutes and institutions
 • ban on working in courts of law
 • ban on teaching at schools
 • doctors of a „non-Aryan origin“ are forbidden to practise in all health institutions
   19. 4.: The second transport of 36 children is dispatched from Prague to England
   29. 4.: The third transport of 29 children was dispatched from Prague to England
   13. 5.: The fourth transport children was dispatched from Prague to England
   2. 6.: The fifth transport of 123 children was dispatched from Prague to England
   21. 6.: The order of Reich protector Konstantin von Neurath on Jewish property was issued – the Nuremberg Laws became valid in the territory of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
   July 1939: Ban on teaching Jewish children at German elementary and secondary schools
  Alice Justitzová  1. 7.: The sixth transport of 241 children was dispatched from Prague to England. Alice is also departing with this transport
  Alice Justitzová  20. 7.: The seventh transport of 76 children was dispatched from Prague to England, Alice’s sister Mimka was among them
   28. 7.: In Prague the authorities of occupation initiated the establishment of the Centre for Jewish Emigration
   August 1939: The Jews are banned from restaurants and coffee bars if the bars do not have special room for the Jews
   2. 8.: The eighth transport of 68 children was dispatched from Prague to England
   1. 9.: The forthcoming biggest transport from Prague to England could not leave
   September 1939:
• The obligation for the Jews to surrender radio sets
• The ban for the Jews to go out after 8 p.m.
   October 1939: It becomes possible to dismiss an employed Jew on the first day of the month without giving reasons
   November 1939: Blocked Jewish accounts are established, which the Jews are allowed to have only with the permission of the authorities
   During the year of 1939:
• The Jews are expelled from all societies
• The Jews are not allowed to attend playing fields, not even as spectators
1940   January:
• All payments to a Jewish person must be sent to blocked bank accounts
• The Jews may not manage their former businesses, which were transferred into Aryan hands
• The obligation for all Jews to declare their property by 31 January 1939 is announced
• The Jews are banned from attending theatres and cinemas show photodocuments
The identity cards of the Jews were labelled with red letter “J”
Ban on entering all public parks and gardens in Prague
   14. 6.:
Police prison of the Prague Gestapo was established in Malá pevnost (“Small Fortress”) in Terezín
The Jews banned from cruises on steamboats
• The purchase period 11-13 and 15- 16.30 was allocated for the Jews
• Ban on accepting Jewish students into schools with Czech as a teaching language
• The Jews are finally banned from entering coffee shops and restaurants
The Jews are allowed to go by tram only in the last car and on the back platform
   November: The Jews are banned from changing their residence and leaving their districts
   December: The Jews are banned from entering some streets in the centre of Prague
1941   January:
• The Jews have their telephones confiscated
• The ration of apples for the Jews was cancelled
• The Jews ordered to hand over their driving licences
   February: Ban on fishing for the Jews
   March: The Jews are not allowed to get clothes vouchers
   June: The sugar rations for the Jews were cancelled
   July: The Jews are banned from entering all woods including private ones
   August: Rations of pulses are taken from the Jews
• The Jews are banned from leaving their residential district without police permission
• All Jews over 6 are forced to wear the yellow Star of David
• The Jews are banned from public libraries
• The Jews are banned from smoking tobacco and purchasing tobacco products
• The Jews are only allowed to use the lowest train class
• The Jews are banned from purchasing shaving soap
• Ban on purchasing fruit and sweets for Jews
• Ban on purchasing or giving as a present marmalades and jams to the Jews
• Ban on purchasing cheese
• Ban on purchasing or giving as a present fish, poultry or venison to the Jews
• The Jews lose the entitlement to wages in illness, sickness benefits, family allowance
• The Jews lose the entitlement to paid holiday
• The Jews may only be employed in groups, separated from other employees
• The Jews must not be given apprenticeship
   10. 10.: At a meeting held by Reinhardt Heydrich, Terezín is determined to be a suitable place for the concentration of most Jews from the Protectorate and it is decided to deport a part of the Protectorate Jews to Lodz and Minsk
   November: The Jews are not allowed to purchase onions
   24. 11.: The first transport to Terezín – the so called Aufbaukommando (building commando) consisting of 342 men
   30. 11.: Beginning of deportations of whole families from the Protectorate
   4. 12.: Arrival of the second building commando consisting of 1000 men in Terezín
  Eva Löwidtová  10. 12. 1941: Eva is deported with her parents in the transport L from Prague to Terezín
1942   January: The compulsion for the Jews to surrender furs and wool things
   9. 1.: The first transport from Terezín to the east – the destination is Riga, Latvia
   20. 1.: Conference in Wannsee where the co-ordination of the “final solution to the Jewish question” was agreed upon
   16. 2.: Abolishment of the the Terezín municipality; henceforth Terezín is marked only for the Jews who should be placed in closed settlements
  Martin Glas  16. 4.: Martin is deported with his parents and brother in the transport St-Ez from Prague to Terezín
   2. 6.: The first transport of the Jews from Germany to Terezín
   27. 6.: The last civilian population left Terezín
   June 1942: The requirement for the Jews to report their dogs, cats and pet birds
   3. 7.: The civilian names of the streets in Terezín ghetto were abolished, the streets are marked with letters L and Q (Langestrasse and Querstrasse)
   6. 7.: Terezín becomes the so called “open town“ with the exception of the parts that are inaccessible to the Jewish prisoners
   18. 9.: The highest number of the prisoners within the entire history of Terezín – 58,491 people
  Petr Ginz  24. 1.: Petr is deported in the transport Ca from Prague to Terezín
   26. 10.: The beginning of deportations from Terezín to Auschwitz- Birkenau – since this date the only destination of all the transports dispatched from Terezín is to the east
  Pavel Werner  9. 12.: Pavel was deported together with his parents and sister in transport Cg from Pardubice to Terezín
   17. 12.: Friedl Dicker-Brandeis is deported to Terezín where she devotes herself to teaching drawing
   18. 12. 1942 – 30. 7. 1944: Every Friday the Vedem magazine is issued (The total number of the issues is 82)
1943   18. 3.: The road by-pass around Terezín was finished and opened. The isolation of the town was completed
   21. 4.: The “Bank of the Jewish Self-rule” was established
   1. 5.: The name “Ghetto Terezín” was abolished and the designation “Jewish Settlement” was introduced
   7. 7.: The compulsion of the female prisoners in Terezín to report their pregnancy, if the woman became pregnant in Terezín, an abortion was ordered
   24. 8.: The arrival of a children’s transport from the ghetto in Bialystok in Poland after its liquidation in Terezín – 1,300 children are kept in top isolation to suppress information on the situation in Poland
   6. 9.: All the transports to the east are posed as heavy labour transports from this day on
   September 1943: The transport of 5,000 prisoners from Terezín to Auschwitz- Birkenau, where they were accommodated in the so called Terezín family camp
   23. 9.: The first night of the children´s opera Brundibár in Magdeburg barracks (till Autumn 1944 the opera had a run of 55 performances)
  Petr Ginz  28. 9.: Petr is deported to Auschwitz, he does not get through the selection and dies in a gas chamber
   29. 10. 1943 – March 1944: The children´s magazine Kamarád is issued in Terezín (The total number of the issues is 19)
   19. 11.: The beginning of the “beautifying of the town” in the Terezín ghetto - “Verschönerung der Stadt”
   December 1943: Another mass transport of Terezín prisoners to the family camp in Auschwitz- Birkenau
  Pavel Werner  15. 12.: Pavel is transported to the family camp in Auschwitz
   22. 12. 1943 – 2. 5. 1944: The magazine Domov is issued in Terezín (The total number of the issues is 10)
show photodocuments show photodocuments
   1943 – 1944: The magazine Nešar is issued in Terezín (The total number of the issues is 13)
1944   January 1944 – February 1944: The magazine Hlas půdy is issued in Terezín (The total number of the issues is 3)
   January 1944 – June 1944: The magazine Bonaco is issued in Terezín (The total number of issues is 6)
   25. 2. 1944 – 24. 8. 1944: The magazine Rim Rim Rim, is issued in Terezín (The total number of issues is 23 plus 3 special editions)
   February 1944 – May 1944: The magazine Noviny is issued in Terezín (The total number of issues is 9 plus 3 illustrated supplements)
   8. 3.: The mass murder of Czech and Moravian Jews who were placed in the family camp Auschwitz- Birkenau after their arrival in September 1943
   May: The last mass transport from Terezín to the family camp in Auschwitz- Birkenau
   23. 6.: The visitation from the delegation of the International Committee of the Red Cross and the Danish government in Terezín
   10. 7.: The selection was carried out in the family camp in Auschwitz- Birkenau
   10. – 12. 7.: Liquidation of the Terezín family camp, those who did not get through the selection were murdered in a gas chamber
   16. 8. – 11. 9.: Shooting of a propagandist film in Terezín
   September to October 1944: The so-called liquidation transports from Terezín to Auschwitz
   September: The magazine Kamarád is issued again (issues 20 – 21)
  Eva Löwidtová  4. 10. 1944: Eva is deported together with her mother to Auschwitz
   Autumn of 1944: The Committee of Christian Aid to Jewish Children is established in Prague, Přemysl Pitter is a member
   2. 11.: Murder in the gas chambers in Auschwitz is ceased
   26. 11.: The gas chambers in Auschwitz are, according to the Nazis’ order, blown up
1945   26. 1. – 16. 3.: Jews, including their children, who are living in so-called mixed marriages are deported from Prague, Ostrava and Olomouc to Terezín
   January: Evacuation of the concentration and extermination camp in Auschwitz
  Pavel Werner  January: Pavel goes through the march to Loslau and train transport to Mauthausen
  Eva Löwidtová  January: Eva and her mother walk in the death march from Grünberg in Lower Silesia through the Protectorate in the direction of Volary. Eva succeeds in escaping the march and a family from Postřeliv at Domažlice hides her
   5. 2.: 1.200 Terezín prisoners leave in a train transport for Switzerland (there were 95 people from Bohemia and Moravia in the transport)
  Růženka Friedová  11. 2.: Růženka and her father are deported in the transport AE 3 from Prague to Terezín
  Pavel Werner  March: Pavel takes part in the death march from Mauthausen to Melk and back
  Pavel Werner  April: Pavel takes part in another death march from Mauthausen to Gunskirchen
   Since 20th April: The evacuation transports from the camps in Poland arrive in Terezín
  Růženka Friedová  May: Růženka and her father go home to Prague
  Eva Löwidtová  Summer 1945: The family of her Eva’s aunt Ilona arrives in Postřekov to take her home
   24. 4. – June: The epidemic of typhoid in Terezín spread by the evacuation transports
   3. 5.: The Czech Aid Action for Terezín originates
   4. 5.: The SS troops leave Terezín
   5. 5.: The commander of Terezín Karl Rahm and his family leave Terezín
   6. 5.: Appeal of the International Red Cross to Terezín prisoners
   7. 5.: The Prague radio calls for help for Terezín
   8. 5.: Fights break out in the vicinity of Terezín, in the evening Terzín is liberated by the Red Army
   10. 5.: Major Kuzmin, a soldier in the Red Army, becomes the military commander of Terezín
   11. 5.: The official liquidation of the ghetto in Terezín
   28. 5.: The repatriation committee was established and the repatriation of the former ghetto prisoners was started
   15. 5.: Přemysl Pitter receives the chateaux of Štiřín, Olešovice, Lojovice and Kamenice u Prahy, confiscated for the purpose of children’s sanatoriums, from the Czech National Council
   May 1945 – May 1947: The stay of the children from the former concentration camps in the convalescent homes at the chateaux in the vicinity of Prague
   22. 5.: The first 40 Jewish children from Terezín arrive at the sanatoria
  Pavel Werner  June 1945: Pavel returns to Pardubice
  Martin Glas  8. 6.: Martin arrives at the sanatorium in Kamenice, later was sent to Štiřín
  Petr Ginz  23. 6.: Eva Ginzová, Peter’s sister, arrives at the sanatorium in Kamenice
   26. 7.: The arrival of the first 56 German children from the detention camp in Prague at the sanatoria in the chateaux near Prague
  Martin Glas  13. 8.: Martin leaves the sanatorium to return home to his mother
   17. 8.: Finishing the work of the repatriation committee for Terezín
  Alice Justitzová  28. 8.: Alice returns from England to Prague
   November 1945: The last repatriates leave Terezín
1946  Eva Löwidtová  July 1946: Eva arrives at the orphan’s home on Belgická street in Prague
1947   May: The “Chateaux Project” organized by Přemyslem Pitterem is finished

Růženka FriedováRůženka Friedová Eva LöwidtováEva Löwidtová
Alice JustitzováAlice Justitzová Pavel WernerPavel Werner
Martin GlasMartin Glas Petr GinzPetr Ginz

» back to TOP